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    Scones, Farl, Crumpets, Pikelets, and Muffins
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    English Muffins and Crumpets - Astrid Bear

Farl and Scones - Colin Bissett

Recipe for Crumpets - Raun Burnham

Muffins, Crumpets, and Scones in Australia - Helen Connor

A Recipe for Crumpets

English Muffins (Montecello Muffins)

English Muffin Bread for a Bread Machine

Basic English Muffins

English Muffins in the Microwave

Canadian Crumpets and Scottish Scones - Jean A.

Soda Farl - John Meyn


Farl in the Isle of Man - Adam Quinan

Scones, Biscuits, Cookies, and Muffins - Adam Quinan

Ginger Scones - Mauricio Rodriguez

Plain Scones - Mauricio Rodriguez

Soda Farls - Karen von Bargen

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English Muffins and Crumpets - Astrid Bear

The old "Joy of Cooking" says that the mix for crumpets and English muffins is the same, only the crumpets have more water/milk in them, so they're more liquid. They need to be cooked in little rings so they don't run all over the griddle. The crumpets we get in the grocery here are from Canada, I think, and they look as if they were only cooked on one side. Much less chewy than English muffins, and with a finer crumb. English muffins typically get split and toasted, and have nice jaggy pointy bits on the inner surface that get extra crisp if the English muffin is properly split with a fork rather than sliced. Butter and jam to taste, of course. For an extra decadent breakfast, top the toasted English muffin with a nicely browned ham slice, poached egg, and Hollandaise sauce -- voila! -- Eggs Benedict.

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Farl and Scones - Colin Bissett

I think that we can safely say that the word 'farl' denotes the triangular shape of the 'item' that results when circular bread is quartered. The word may well share the same root as 'farthing', as in 'quarter', this had never occured to me.

As for 'scones' there are an immense variety - in the local shop I can buy Devon scones, drop scones, treacle scones, potato scones (very good with bacon and eggs), wheaten scones. All apart from the Devon scones are triangular, but none are referred to as 'farls', unless packaged as an Irish delicacy in Safeways. To add further confusion, in Shetland a scone is also referred to by the old lowland Scots term of 'bannock' - the Shetland bannock is normally served with a slice of reestit mutton (salted and dried above the peat fire).

Recipe for Crumpets - Raun Burnham

This [recipe for crumpets] is from "Great British Cooking, A Well-Kept Secret" by Jane Garmey, Random House, NY 1981.

2 1/2 C Flour
1 t Sugar
2/3 C Water
1/4 Ounce Active Dry Yeast
2 T oil

Sift the flour into a bowl and stand it on top of the stove. Heat the water in a saucepan over low heat until it is lukewarm. Take out 3 tablespoons of the water and mix with the yeast and sugar in a cup. Make a well in the flour and pour in first the yeast mixture and then the remaining water and a pinch of salt. Beat hard for 3 minutes, cover the bowl and stand it in a warm place until the dough is well risen. (This should take about 45 minutes). Beat the dough down and add a little warm water to turn the dough to a batter consistency. Grease a pancake griddle or a large frying pan with a little of the oil. Place round cookie cutters (you'll need 3 or 4, and you can make these by removing both ends from an empty can that is approximately 3 inches wide and 2 inches deep. [A tuna fish can might work if you can soak out the odor]), and when the oil is hot, pour in enough dough into each cutter to reach about 3/4 inch high. Cook them for a few minutes until the bottoms are brown, the tops have become solid and holes have appeared all over the surface. (If the batter is too thick, this will not happen and you should add more water to it). Remove the rings, turn the crumpets and cook them for about 2 more minutes before removing them from the heat and draining on a paper towel. Repeat this process until you have used up all the dough. This makes approximately 12-15 crumpets.

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Muffins, Crumpets, and Scones in Australia - Helen Connor

Muffins are more like bread (but tastier) and usually eaten toasted, crumpets are made from a batter and cooked on something like unto a griddle (then toasted in the home; Sophie toasted far too many for Stephen by the fire), scones are baked then eaten warm or cold, but not further toasted. I like scones with just butter, most people like them with jam and cream.

I don't know if yeast ever features in the crumpet recipe, as they're available year round in the supermarket (ie, no one cooks them from scratch).

See Delia Online : Recipes

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Recipe for Crumpets


12 oz strong plain flour
1/2 oz fresh yeast
12 fl oz water
2 tsp salt
1/2 tsp bicarbonate of soda
1/4 pint of milk

Mix the first three ingredients together well. Cover the bowl with polythene and leave in a warm place to prove, until the mixture is light and fluffy and about to collapse (approx 1hr).

Mix the bicarbonate of soda and salt into the milk, then mix briskly into the batter. You may have to add a little more milk to make sure it's runny.

Butter a griddle or heavy frying pan and heat up. Butter poaching rings and set in the pan. Cook crumpets over a medium heat by adding 1 or 2 tbsp of batter at a time to each poaching ring. When the top is set remove the ring and turn the crumpet over and cook for 2 or 3 minutes more. In the meantime, the ring can be re-buttered and used for the next ones.

Serve hot with butter, or with jam. Can be kept in an air-tight container for a couple of days and toasted before eating. (Makes about 10)

For a picture of crumpets, see Pieter's Crumpet Page

English Muffins (Montecello Muffins)

Monticello Muffins
The following muffin recipe was commonly eaten and much enjoyed by Thomas Jefferson and his family.

4 cups of flour
1 1/2 packets of yeast
1 1/2 cups water
cast iron griddle

Mix flour, yeast, and water. Dough will be very sticky. Coat your hands in flour before kneading the dough. While kneading, continue to add small amounts of flour to the dough until the stickiness disappears and the dough becomes more solid. You may find you add as much as 1/2 cup more flour during this process.

Put the dough in a large bowl, cover with a towel, and leave in a warm place overnight. The dough should more than double by morning. The underside of the dough may be a bit sticky -- if so, knead it a bit more. Using your hands, shape the muffins into small golf-ball sized balls. Set the muffins aside, cover with a towel, and let rise for an hour.

Preheat ungreased griddle over medium heat. Add shaped muffins to griddle and cook for about five minutes on each side.

The muffins will look like biscuits on the outside and English muffins on the inside. Serve immediately. Makes two dozen small muffins.

-- developed from the original recipe by Monticello staff members Susan McCrary and Katherine G. Revell

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English Muffin Bread for a Bread Machine

Recipe By : Donna German Bread Machine Cookbook

1 1/4 cups Water
2 teaspoons Sugar
1 teaspoon Salt
1/4 teaspoon Baking soda
3 cups Bread flour
3 tablespoons Nonfat dry milk
2 teaspoons Yeast

These measurements are for the Large (1 to 1-1/2 lb) machine. Add ingredients according to your machine instructions. Use regular bread cycle.

Basic English Muffins

Recipe By : Barbara Day

Yeast-Flour Mixture
2 cups Flour -- all purpose
2 tablespoons Sugar -- or honey
2 teaspoons Salt
1 tablespoon Yeast -- dry active/1 pkg

Liquid Mixture
1 3/4 cups Milk
1/4 cup Water
1 tablespoon Butter
1 Egg
4 cups Flour -- all-purpose, divided
1/2 cup Cornmeal

Yeast-Flour Mixture: In large bowl of mixer stir together 2 cups flour, the sugar, salt and dry yeast; set aside.

Liquid Mixture: Heat milk, water and butter until very warm (120 to 130 degrees). Add gradually to yeast-flour mixture and beat at medium speed 2 minutes. Stir in just enough remaining flour to make a soft dough. Knead on lightly floured surface until smooth and elastic, adding more remaining flour if dough is sticky. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise in warm, draft-free place until double, about 1 hour.

Punch down. Cover and let rise again until double, about 45 minutes. Punch down. On lightly floured surface roll out 1/2-inch thick. With 3 1/4-inch round cutter (or clean tuna can opened at both ends) cut out muffins. Sprinkle cookie sheets lightly with cornmeal. Add muffins, about 1-inch apart. Sprinkle additional cornmeal. Cover; let rise in warm, draft-free place until double, about 45 minutes. Heat lightly greased griddle or heavy skillet. With wide metal spatula carefully remove muffins (do not compress or puncture muffins or they will collapse) to griddle. Bake over very low heat 8 to 10 minutes on each side or until light brown. (Muffins should sound hollow when tapped.) Cool on racks. To serve, split with fork tines; toast.

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English Muffins in the Microwave

5 cups flour
2 pkgs yeast
1 Tbs sugar
2 tsp salt
2.5 cups milk
1/4 tsp. baking soda dissolved in 1 TBS warm water

Mix only three cups of the flour with the yeast, sugar and salt. Warm milk to 100-110 F. Add the flour mixture, and beat with a mixer until smooth, then stir in enough of the remaining flour to make a stiff batter. Cover and let rise till doubled (1 hour).

Stir down the risen batter, thoroughly blend in the soda mixture. Divide into two 8.5 x 4.5 x 2.5 " tins or 1.5 quart souffle dishes. Cover and let redouble again (45 mins).

Cook each loaf for about 6 mins 30 seconds on HIGH uncovered, or until no doughy spots remain. Cool before slicing, then toast.

Canadian Crumpets and Scottish Scones - Jean A.

I get my crumpets, imported from Canada, at the local market. I refrigerate them immediately. ( The market keeps them fresh in their freezer.) They must be toasted, as someone has already written. No fat! No cholesterol ( until you add the butter).
As for scones, my Scottish in-laws, both mother-and father-in-law, loved to make them. The best I ever tasted were treacle scones, made by a visiting Scottish aunt.
And our other correspondents are right: I don't believe that what are called English muffins on this side of the pond are known over there.

Soda Farl - John Meyn

In Ireland, "plain" soda bread is as likely to be eaten as an accompaniment to a main meal (to soak up the gravy) as it's likely to appear at breakfast. It comes in two main colors, brown and white, and two main types: "cake" and "farl". The latter are primarily regional differences. People in the south of Ireland tend to make cake: people up North seem to like farl better (though both kinds appear in both North and South, sometimes under wildly differing names). "Cake" is soda bread kneaded and shaped into a flattish round, then cut with a cross on the top (to let the bread stretch and expand as it rises in the oven) and baked on a baking sheet. Farl is rolled out into a rough circle and cut through, crosswise, into four pieces (the "farls": farl is a generic term for any triangular piece of baking) and usually baked in a heavy frying pan or on a griddle, on top of the range rather than in the oven. You may hear either of these breads referred to locally as "brown cake", "soda cake", "soda farl", "brown farl", "wheaten bread", and any combination of numerous other weird terms.

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Pikelets, a quick-bread version of crumpets, are often served at afternoon tea during the winter months in the British Isles. Serve hot off the griddle with plenty of butter and a choice of favorite jams or jellies. The cooking technique is similar to making pancakes.

1 1/3 cups all-purpose flour
1/4 cup sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 beaten egg
1 cup buttermilk
6 tablespoons butter or margarine, melted

In a medium mixing bowl stir together flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Make a well in the center. In a small mixing bowl combine egg, buttermilk, and melted butter or margarine; add all at once to flour mixture. Stir just till moistened. (The batter should be lumpy.)

For each pikelet, spoon about 2 rounded tablespoons of the batter onto a lightly greased hot griddle or heavy skillet and spread to about a 3 1/2-inch circle with the back of a spoon. Cook a few pikelets at a time for a total of about 5 minutes, or till golden brown on both sides, turning to cook second sides when pikelets have bubbly surfaces and slightly dry edges. Repeat with remaining batter. Serve warm. Makes 14 to 16 pikelets.

Farl in the Isle of Man - Adam Quinan

Farl in the Isle of Man is a wholegrain soda bread usually starting off as a round loaf about 8 to 10" across divided into quarters which are separated off and used individually. I wonder if the etymology comes from the four way split as in farthing.

Scones, Biscuits, Cookies, and Muffins - Adam Quinan

Scones are more like what Americans seem to call biscuits. Biscuits in England are cookies and English muffins are neither English nor muffins.

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Ginger Scones - Mauricio Rodriguez

(From the January, 2000 issue of Bon Appetit)

2 and 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
1/3 cup sugar
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon grated lemon peel
11 tablespoons chilled unsalted butter, cut into small pieces
3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons whipping cream
1/4 to 2/3 cup diced crystallized ginger, depending on your fondness for ginger

Preheat over to 400 degrees F. Lightly butter baking sheet. Place flour, sugar, baking powder and lemon peel in processor; add butter and cut in using on/off turns, or use a pastry blender, until mixture resembles coarse meal. Transfer mixture to large bowl. Make a well in center and add 3/4 cup cream. Using a fork, stir until just moist. Mix in ginger.

Transfer dough to floured surface and gently knead until smooth, about 8 turns. Divide dough in half; pat each portion into a 3/4-inch/thick round. Cut each round into 6 wedges and transfer to prepared baking sheet, spacing 1 inch apart. Brush tops with remaining 2 tablespoons cream.

Bake scones until light brown, about 16-18 minutes.

Plain Scones - Mauricio Rodriguez

2 cups flour
1/2 cup powdered sugar
1 and 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup butter or margarine
1/2 cup raisins or other dried fruit, such as cranberries, chopped apricots, peaches
2/3 cup milk

Mix dry ingredients together. Cut in butter with a pastry blender. Mix in raisins. Mix in milk with a fork. DO NOT OVERMIX. Pat into a circle on an ungreased cookie sheet, pie tin, or 8" square cake pan. Cut into 8 triangles or 9 squares. Bake at 450 degrees for 10-12 minutes in the upper third of the over to avoid burning.

Soda Farls - Karen von Bargen

Here are soda farls, a recipe from a bakery in Belfast:

1 cup all purpose flour
1 cup cake flour
2 teaspoons baking soda
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup buttermilk

Mix dry ingredients together. Add buttermilk and stir. Turn dough onto floured board and knead gently, forming a round, about 10-12 inches. Cut into quarters. Fry farls in a "wee" bit of butter, until browned and cooked through, about 5-7 minutes on each side. You may need to set them on end to help cook the sides.

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